Line cutting

Line cutting is normally the first physical exploration work to be done on a claim. When line cutting there is a baseline through the middle of the survey area with a series of grid or wing lines running off of the baseline at 90-degree angles. Wood pickets with written coordinates are placed in the ground at a regular intervals along the lines. These pickets give explorationists a coordinate system that helps locate the features on maps for further work.

Line cutting provides a coordinate system and path for additional exploration work, such as geological mapping and geophysical surveys.

43-101 Reports

NI (National Instrument) 43-101 is a rule that governs how issuers disclose scientific and technical information about mineral projects to the public. It includes oral, written documents, and websites.

NI 43-101 Technical Report can be any of the following:

  • The first-time report on a mineral property (exploration or operating)
  • A summary of the exploration activities with inherent Quality Control/Quality Assurance on a project
  • A summary of mineral resource estimate for a property
  • Report outlining ownership of a non-operating interest in the property (Royalty)
  • A report containing results of a Preliminary Economic Assessment
  • Report on summary of the result of a Pre-Feasibility Study, depending on the complexity of the project
  • Summary of the results of a Feasibility Study on mineral property.
  • Summary of work conducted on an operating project possibly containing updated resource and reserve estimates
  • Any variation of the above

Channel Sampling

Channel samples consist of small chips of rock collected over a specified linear interval. The objective is to cut a linear channel across the vein or orebody for the most representative samples possible over the designated interval. Most of the time, chip channel samples are collected in succession along a sample line that is laid out in advance using a measuring tape and is designed to cross the area of interest. Often the chip channel samples are collected along surface trenches or the floors or walls of various underground workings.

Sample intervals are set at a specified width, usually ranging from 1 to 20 feet, commonly 5 feet. This allows for a representative sample to be acquired as the sample is not biased.

Differential GPS Surveys

Differential GPS Surveys are a correction technique used to enhance the quality of location data gathered by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Differential correction can be applied in real-time directly in the field or when postprocessing data in the office. Although both methods are based on the same underlying principles, each accesses different data sources and achieves different levels of accuracy.


Mapping provides many types of information essential both in exploration for new mineral deposits and during subsequent mining. Mapping gathers structural information, including attitudes of the vein and faults that can be used to help predict the geology in the subsurface or laterally, and improves the utility of geophysical data for refinement of subsurface targets. Mapping of the mineralogy of hydrothermal alteration zone, ore minerals, igneous rocks hosting ores, oxidized and leached rocks that normally occur at the surface which is above sulfide-baring ores can be used in conjunction with geochemical data to produce zonation patterns to target potential ore or to define prospective corridors of mineralization.


Many facets of the exploration sequence and crown land usage requires various levels of plans or permitting.

All early exploration activities that require an exploration plan or permit must follow the Provincial Standards for Early Exploration. There are three parts to these Provincial Standards:

  1. Rules for carrying out exploration plan activities.
  2. Rules for carrying out exploration permit activities.
  3. Rules for rehabilitation of exploration plan and exploration permit activities

The MNR also requires various levels of permitting for the installation of water crossings, the construction of roads and the extraction of aggregates.

The MTO also requires permitting for activities such as constructing access off the highway right of ways.

Some ENDM and MNR permits include Working on Crown Land, Access & Roads, Timber Cutting, Environmental Guidelines for Exploration, Working in or Near Water, and Drilling.

Power Washing

Power washing is used to clean off any dirt that could be on the rock or outcrop, so that the geologist can observe and document the geology. A jet of water from a pressure pump is used to loosen and remove most clays or dirt.

Once the rocks have been cleaned it will make it easier for the geologist to see what types of soil and rocks, they will be dealing with. The geologists will also be able to take better samples of the rock without any sand, or gravel interfering with the sample.


Prospecting is used for the search of mineral deposits in a place. Prospecting is generally performed by direct observation. This involves some research in what has historically been noted on the piece of ground. Then the prospector physically investigates the ground, identifies and samples favorable rock types that may be encountered.